A mountain is a raised part of the earth’s crust, usually with steep sides and more than 1000 m in height.
Endogenous and exogenous forces can produce different forms of landforms. A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the earth. For example mountains, plateaus and plains.
Mountains are classified according to their formation. There are four main types of mountains.
1) Fold Mountains
- Fold Mountains are formed where the crust is pushed upwards when plates collide, causing the crust to rise in folds.
- Occurs very slowly.
Types of Fold Mountains
- Young Fold Mountains:
- those least affected by denudation processes.
- Examples: Himalayas, Alps, Rockies, Andies, etc.
- The age of Young Fold Mountain is 66 million to date.
- Old Fold Mountains:
- The mountain-building periods of Caledonia and Hercinia are included in this category.
- The origin of the Old Fold Mountain is before the Tertiary (the Tertiary began 66 million years ago).
- Upper layers are worn due to erosive activity. Example: Aravalli Range in India.
- Examples: Appalachian Mountains in North America, Urals in Russia and Aravalli Mountains in India.
2) Block Mountains
- Mountain Blocks arise when the tension and compression associated with the movement of the plate is so great that the rock blocks separate.
- This process can occur very quickly.
- Block Mountain represents: Block or Horst (land rises between parallel faults) or Rift Valley / Graben (land sinks between parallel faults).
- Examples: The Vosges in France, the Black Forest in Germany and the Sierra Nevada in North America.
3) Volcanic Mountains
- These mountains are formed by the accumulation of materials expelled from the volcano. Volcanic mountains are often referred to as mountains of accumulation.
- Examples: Kilimanjaro, Mount Fuji, Hawaii etc.
4) Relict mountains
- A relict mountain is a type of relief that forms from the years after the denudation of already elevated lands.
- Examples: Aravalli, Satpura, Vindhyas, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats, etc.